About These Resources

Indian News Press.
"Indian News Press." 75-GS-13, RG 75-GS. Photographs of Genoa Industrial School at Genoa, NE, 1910. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD.

The following is a list of resources relating to the history of Genoa and other Indian boarding schools. Our focus is on Genoa, but since the school was part of a system of boarding schools across the United States, and children were often shifted among various boarding schools, we also present resources related to other schools and the boarding school system. We have included a range of resource types, as well as those for a variety of audiences, so that researchers and learners of many backgrounds and at various levels may find materials of interest. Wherever possible, we strive to include resources by Native authors, artists, and creators, in order to present Native voices and perspectives on the boarding school experience.

Digital Archives


Online Exhibits

Audio Broadcasts



  • Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
  • Brumley, Kim. Chilocco: Memories of a Native American Boarding School. Fairfax: Guardian Publishing House, 2010.
  • Child, Brenda. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
  • Coleman, Michael C. American Indian Children at School, 1850-1930. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.
  • Cooper, Michael L. Indian School: Teaching the White Man’s Way. Boston: Clarion Books, 1999.
  • Ellis, Clyde. To Change Them Forever: Indian Education at the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1893-1920. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.
  • Earenfight, Phillip. Shan Goshorn: Resisting the Mission. Carlisle: Trout Gallery, 2018.
  • Fear-Segal, Jacqueline. White Man’s Club: Schools, Race, and the Struggle of Indian Acculturation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
  • Fear-Segal, Jacqueline,  and Susan D. Rose. Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Indigenous Histories, Memories, and Reclamations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2016.
  • Fortunate Eagle, Adam. Pipestone: My Life in an Indian Boarding School. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press,  2010.
  • Giago, Tim, and Denise Giago.  Children Left Behind: The Dark Legacy of Indian Mission Boarding Schools. Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishers, 2006.
  • Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa.  Education Beyond the Mesas: Hopi Students at Sherman Institute, 1902-1929.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.
  • Gram, John R., and Theodore Jojola. Education at the Edge of Empire: Negotiating Pueblo Identity in New Mexico’s Indian Boarding Schools. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.
  • Griffith, Jane. Words Have a Past: The English Language, Colonialism, and the Newspapers of Indian Boarding Schools. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2019.
  • Jacobs, Margaret. White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009.
  • Keller, Jean A. Empty Beds: Indian Student Health at Sherman Institute, 1902-1922. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2002.
  • La Flesche, Francis.  The Middle Five: Indian Schoolboys of the Omaha Tribe. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978.
  • Lajimodiere, Denise K. Stringing Rosaries: The History, the Unforgivable, and the Healing of Northern Plains American Indian Boarding School Survivors. Fargo: North Dakota State University Press, 2019.
  • Landrum, Cynthia Leanne. The Dakota Sioux Experience at Flandreau and Pipestone Indian Schools. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2019.
  • Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, Brenda J. Child, Margaret L. Archuleta. Away from Home: American Indian Boarding School Experiences, 1879-2000. Phoenix: Heard Museum, 2000.
  • Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called It Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
  • Lomawaima, K Tsianina, and Teresa L. McCarty. “To Remain an Indian”: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2006.
  • Meyers Bahr, Diana. The Students of Sherman Indian School: Education and Native Identity since 1892. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014.
  • Montgomery, Lindsay M., and Chip Colwell. Objects of Survivance: A Material History of the American Indian School Experience. Denver: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2019.
  • Regan, Paulette. Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2011.
  • Reyhner, Jon,  and Jeanne Eder. American Indian Education, 2nd Edition: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2017.
  • Riney, Scott.  The Rapid City Indian School, 1898-1933. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014.
  • Standing Bear, Luther. My Indian Boyhood. 1931. Reprinted, Lincoln: Bison Books,2006.
  • ------, My People the Sioux. 1928. Reprinted, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
  • Stout, Mary A. Native American Boarding Schools. Denver: Landmarks of the American Mosaic, 2012.
  • Trafzer, Clifford T., and Jean A. keller. Boarding School Blues: Revisiting American Indian Educational Experiences . Lincoln: Bison Books at the University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
  • Trafzer, Clifford E., Matthew Sakiestewa Gilbert and Lorene Sisquoc. The Indian School on Magnolia Avenue: Voices and Images from Sherman Institute. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2012.
  • Trennert, Robert A. The Phoenix Indian School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
  • Trimble, Charles. Iyeska. Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing, 2012.
  • Vuckovic, Myriam.  Voices from Haskell: Indian Students Between Two Worlds, 1884-1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
  • Whalen, Kevin. Native Students at Work: American Indian Labor and Sherman Institute’s Outing Program, 1900-1945. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2016.
  • Woolford, Andrew. The Benevolent Experiment: Indigenous Boarding Schools, Genocide, and Redress in Canada and the Unites States. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.
  • Zitkala-Sa. American Indian Stories. 1921. Reprinted, New York: Company Circle Press, 2019.

Theses and Dissertations

  • Bell, Genevieve. “Telling stories out of school: Remembering the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879-1918.” PhD diss., Stanford University, 1998.
  • Bonnell, Sonciray. “Chemawa Indian Boarding School: The First One Hundred Years 1880 to 1980.” PhD diss., Dartmouth College, 1997.
  • Bowker, Kathie Marie. “The boarding school legacy: Ten contemporary Lakota women tell their stories.” Ed.D. Montana State University, 2007.
  • Frear, Shelley R. “The Genoa Indian School: A mixed legacy 50 years of transformation, survival, and hope in a United States government Indian boarding school on the Nebraska Plains.”  Master’s Thesis, University of Nebraska, 2012.
  • Gough, Alexandria L. “A way out: The history of the outing program from the Haskell Institute to the Phoenix Indian School.” Master’s Thesis, University of Arkansas, 2012.
  • Hamley, Jeffrey Louis. “Cultural genocide in the classroom: A history of the Federal Boarding School Movement in American Indian education, 1875-1920.” Ed.D., Harvard University, 1994.
  • Kunze, Stefanie. “Tools of Ethnocide: Assimilation and Benevolence in Native American Boarding Schools.” PhD diss., Northern Arizona University, 2017.
  • Meisel, Joshua Jerome. “Historical demographics, student origins, and recruitment at off-reservation Indian boarding schools, 1900.” Master’s Thesis, University of Kansas, 2014.
  • Murphy, Wynona Winters. “Chilocco: Health conditions at a Native American boarding school, 1884-1930.” Master’s Thesis, Truman State University, 2003.
  • Norris, Tyler. "Race, Childhood, and Native American Boarding Schools: A Case Study of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute." Master’s Thesis, the College of William and Mary, 2014.
  • Riding In, James Thomas. "Keepers of Tirawahut's Covenant: The Development and Destruction of Pawnee Culture." PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1991.
  • ------. "Pawnee Removal: A Study of Pawnee-White Relations in Nebraska," MA thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1985.
  • Thompson, Bonnie. “The Student Body: A History of the Stewart Indian School, 1890-1940.” PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2013.
  • Voyer, Charlene. “Assimilation of the American Indian: The meaning of the boarding school experience.” Psy.D., Chestnut Hill College, 2006.
  • Walters, Sean M. “Catching the Spirit: Extra-Curricular Activities and the Protestant Work Ethic at the Genoa Indian School, 1903-1934.” Master’s Thesis, University of Nebraska, 2005.


  • Blackmar, F. W. "Indian Education." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 2 (1892): 81-105.
  • Colmant, Stephen, Lahoma Schultz, Rockey Robbins, Peter Ciali, Julie Dorton, and Yvette Rivera-Colmant. "Constructing Meaning to the Indian Boarding School Experience." Journal of American Indian Education 43, no. 3 (2004): 22-40.
  • Daddario, Wilma A. “’They Get Milk Practically Every Day’: The Genoa Indian Industrial School, 1884-1934.” Nebraska History 73(1992): 2-11.
  • Davis, Julie. "American Indian Boarding School Experiences: Recent Studies from Native Perspectives." OAH Magazine of History 15, no. 2 (2001): 20-22.
  • Dawson, Alexander S.  "Histories and Memories of the Indian Boarding Schools in Mexico, Canada, and the United States." Latin American Perspectives 39, no. 5(2012): 80-99.
  • Devens, Carol. "If We Get the Girls, We Get the Race": Missionary Education of Native American Girls." Journal of World History 3, no. 2(1992): 219-37.
  • Ellis, Clyde. "Boarding School Life at the Kiowa-Comanche Agency, 1893-1920." The Historian 58, no. 4(1996): 777-93.
  • Enoch, Jessica. “Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.” College English 65, no. 2(2002): 117-141. Doi: 10.2307/3250759.
  • Feir, Donna L. "The Long-term Effects of Forcible Assimilation Policy: The Case of Indian Boarding Schools." The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue Canadienne D'Economique 49, no. 2(2016): 433-80.
  • Goodburn, Amy M. "Girls' Literacy in the Progressive Era: Female and American Indian Identity at the Genoa Indian School." Faculty Publication- Department of English (2003): 79-101.
  • Grinde, Donald A. "Taking the Indian out of the Indian: U.S. Policies of Ethnocide Through Education." Wicazo Sa Review 19, no. 2(2004): 25-32. 
  • Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. “Domesticity in the Federal Indian Schools: The Power of Authority over Mind and Body.” American Ethnologist 20, no. 2(1993): 1-14.
  • Low, Denise. "Boarding School Resistance Narratives: Haskell Runaway and Ghost Stories." Studies in American Indian Literatures 15, no. 2(2003): 106-18.
  • Platt, Elvira. "Some Experiences Teaching Among the Pawnee," Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society 14, (1915-1918): 784-794.
  • Reyhner, Jon. "American Indian Boarding Schools: What Went Wrong? What Is Going Right?" Journal of American Indian Education 57, no. 1(2018): 58-78. DOI: 10.5749/jamerindieduc.57.1.0058
  • Robbins, Sarah Ruffing. "Reclaiming Voices from Indian Boarding School Narratives." In Learning Legacies: Archive to Action through Women's Cross-Cultural Teaching, 135-79. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017.
  • Smith, Andrea. "Boarding School Abuses, Human Rights, and Reparations." Social Justice 31, no. 4 (98) (2004): 89-102.
  • Starnes, Bobby Ann. "What We Don't Know Can Hurt Them: White Teachers, Indian Children." The Phi Delta Kappan 87, no. 5(2006): 384-92.
  • Surface-Evans, Sarah L. "A Landscape of Assimilation and Resistance: The Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 20, no. 3 (2016): 574-88. DOI: 10.2307/j.ctv65sxf3.7
  • Trautmann, Rebecca Head. "Filling the Silence: Baskets Preserve Shan Goshorn’s Unique Talent and Depict Lasting Impacts of Indian Boarding Schools." Magazine of Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian 20 no. 4 (Winter 2019).
  • Trennert, Robert A. "Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878-1920." The Western Historical Quarterly 13, no. 3 (1982): 271-90. DOI:10.2307/969414.
  • Vizenor, Gerald. "Boarding School Remembrance." In The People Named the Chippewa: Narrative Histories, 98-112. University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

Films, Television, and Documentaries

  • Douglas, Ron, dir. Unseen Tears: The Native American Boarding School Experience in Western New York, Buffalo: Native American Community Services of Erie and Niagara Counties, 2009.
  • Howe, John, dir. Unspoken: America’s Native American Boarding Schools. Salt Lakota City: University of Utah Press, 2016.
  • "Indigenous Activists Shine a Light on the History of Residential Schools." CBS Evening News, 2021.
  • Lesiak, Christine, dir. American Experience: In the White Man’s Image. Boston: WGBH Boston Video, 1992.
  • Nebraska Education Television (NET) Network documentary. "White Man’s Way": Genoa Indian School,1986.
  • O'Gara, Geoff, dir. Home From School: The Children of Carlisle. Lander, WY: Caldera Productions, 2021.
  • Palmer, Paula, dir. Quaker Indian Boarding Schools: Facing Our History and Ourselves. Boulder: Toward Right Relationship Project, 2016.
  • Richie, Chip, dir. Circle of Life Series. "Our spirits don’t speak English": Indian Boarding School. Written by Dan Agent. Rich-Heape Films, 2008.